R Operators

R operators are symbols that processes computations or operations for variables and values.
There are classified into several categories
  1. Arithmetic Operators - +, -, *, /, %/%, %%, ^
  2. Relational Operators - ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=
  3. Logical Operators - &, |, !

Arithmetic Operators

Used for basic mathematical calculations.

Operator

Description

Example

+

Addition

5 + 3

-

Subtraction

5 - 3

*

Multiplication

5 * 3

/

Division

5 / 3

%/%

Integer Division

5 %/% 3

%%

Modulus (remainder)

5 %% 3

^

Exponentiation

5^3


Example

# Addition
result_add <- 5 + 3  # result_add is 8
result_add
# Subtraction
result_add <- 5 - 3  # result_sub is 2
result_add
# Multiplication
result_mult <- 5 * 3  # result_mult is 15
result_mult
# Division
result_div <- 5 / 3  # result_div is 1.666667
result_div
# Integer Division
result_int_div <- 5 %/% 3  # result_int_div is 1
result_int_div
# Modulus
result_mod <- 5 %% 3  # result_mod is 2
result_mod
# Exponentiation
result_exp <- 5^3  # result_exp is 125
result_exp

Relational Operators

Used for comparisons, and they return a boolean result (1 for true, 0 for false).

Operator

Description

Example

==

Equal to

5 == 3

!=

Not equal to

5 != 3

>

Greater than

5 > 3

<

Less than

5 < 3

>=

Greater than or equal to

5 >= 3

<=

Less than or equal to

5 <= 3


Example

# Equal to
result_equal <- 5 == 3  # result_equal is FALSE

# Not equal to
result_not_equal <- 5 != 3  # result_not_equal is TRUE

# Greater than
result_greater_than <- 5 > 3  # result_greater_than is TRUE

# Less than
result_less_than <- 5 < 3  # result_less_than is FALSE

# Greater than or equal to
result_greater_equal <- 5 >= 3  # result_greater_equal is TRUE

# Less than or equal to
result_less_equal <- 5 <= 3  # result_less_equal is FALSE

Logical Operators

Used to perform logical operations, often in conditional statements.

Operator

Description

Example

&

Logical AND

TRUE & FALSE

|

Logical OR

TRUE | FALSE

!

Logical NOT

!TRUE


Example

# Logical AND
result_and <- TRUE & FALSE  # result_and is FALSE

# Logical OR
result_or <- TRUE | FALSE  # result_or is TRUE

# Logical NOT
result_not <- !TRUE  # result_not is FALSE

Miscellaneous Operators

Some Operators used in R

Operator

Description

Example

%in%

Tests if elements are in a vector

2 %in% c(1, 2, 3)

%>%

Pipe operator (used in magrittr package)

data %>% summary()

%*%

Used for matrix multiplication

matrix1 %*% matrix2

:

Creates a sequence

1:5

?

Provides help for a function or topic

?mean


Example

library(magrittr)

# Example: Applying summary() to a data frame
data <- data.frame(x = rnorm(100), y = rnorm(100))
result <- data %>% summary()

is_in <- 2 %in% c(1, 2, 3)
is_in

?mean

sequence <- 1:5
sequence

matrix1 <- matrix(c(1, 2, 3, 4), nrow = 2)
matrix2 <- matrix(c(5, 6, 7, 8), nrow = 2)

result_matrix <- matrix1 %*% matrix2

print(result_matrix)

Quick Recap - Topics Covered

Operations in R

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