R Data Types

In R we declare a variable with a data type to store the type of data.
R supports several fundamental data types.

Data Type

Description

Example

Numeric

Real or decimal numbers

num_var <- 3.14

Integer

Whole numbers

int_var <- 42L

Character

Text or strings

char_var <- "Hello, R!"

Logical

Boolean values (TRUE or FALSE)

logical_var <- TRUE

Factor

Categorical variables with levels

factor_var <- factor(c("Low", "Medium", "High"))

Vector

One-dimensional array

numeric_vector <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

Matrix

Two-dimensional array with rows and columns

matrix_var <- matrix(1:6, nrow = 2, ncol = 3)

Array

Multi-dimensional array

array_var <- array(1:24, dim = c(2, 3, 4))

Data Frame

Two-dimensional table with rows and columns

data <- data.frame(Name = c("John", "Jane", "Bob"), Age = c(25, 30, 22), Grade = c("A", "B", "C"))

List

Collection of elements with different data types

list_var <- list("apple", 3.14, TRUE)

NULL

Represents the absence of a value

null_var <- NULL

Missing Values (NA)

Represents missing or undefined values

missing_var <- NA

Complex

Complex numbers

complex_var <- 2 + 3i

Raw

Vector of bytes

raw_var <- as.raw(c(0x01, 0x02, 0x03))

Out of all Numeric, Integer, Character, Logical Data types are important because, remaining datatypes stores the values among the four data types only.

Example

# Numeric
num_var <- 3.14

# Integer
int_var <- 42L

# Character
char_var <- "Hello, R!"

# Logical
logical_var <- TRUE

# Factor
factor_var <- factor(c("Low", "Medium", "High"))

# Vector
numeric_vector <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
char_vector <- c("apple", "banana", "orange")

# Matrix
matrix_var <- matrix(1:6, nrow = 2, ncol = 3)

# Array
array_var <- array(1:24, dim = c(2, 3, 4))

# Data Frame
data <- data.frame(
  Name = c("John", "Jane", "Bob"),
  Age = c(25, 30, 22),
  Grade = c("A", "B", "C")
)

# List
list_var <- list("apple", 3.14, TRUE)

# NULL
null_var <- NULL

# Missing Values (NA)
missing_var <- NA

# Complex
complex_var <- 2 + 3i

# Raw
raw_var <- as.raw(c(0x01, 0x02, 0x03))

# Print variables
print(num_var)
print(int_var)
print(char_var)
print(logical_var)
print(factor_var)
print(numeric_vector)
print(char_vector)
print(matrix_var)
print(array_var)
print(data)
print(list_var)
print(null_var)
print(missing_var)
print(complex_var)
print(raw_var)

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Data Types in R

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