C Math

In c we can compile variety of mathematical functions using math.h header file.
Here are some commenly used math functions
  1. Trigonometric Functions - sin(x), cos(x), tan(x), asin(x), acos(x), atan(x)
  2. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions - exp(x), log(x), log10(x)
  3. Power Functions - pow(x, y), sqrt(x)
  4. Rounding Functions - ceil(x), floor(x), round(x)
  5. Absolute Value - fabs(x)
  6. Random Number Generation - rand(), srand(seed)

Trigonometric Functions

Function

Description

Example

sin(x)

Sine function

sin(0.5) returns the sine of 0.5 radians

cos(x)

Cosine function

cos(0.5) returns the cosine of 0.5 radians

tan(x)

Tangent function

tan(0.5) returns the tangent of 0.5 radians

asin(x)

Arcsine function (inverse of sine)

asin(0.5) returns the arcsine of 0.5, in radians

acos(x)

Arccosine function (inverse of cosine)

acos(0.5) returns the arccosine of 0.5, in radians

atan(x)

Arctangent function (inverse of tangent)

atan(0.5) returns the arctangent of 0.5, in radians


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int main() {
    double x = 2.5;
    double y = 3.0;

    // Trigonometric functions
    printf("sin(%f) = %f\n", x, sin(x));
    printf("cos(%f) = %f\n", x, cos(x));
    printf("tan(%f) = %f\n", x, tan(x));
    printf("asin(%f) = %f\n", x, asin(x));
    printf("acos(%f) = %f\n", x, acos(x));
    printf("atan(%f) = %f\n", x, atan(x));
    
    return 0;
}

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Function

Description

Example

exp(x)

Exponential function (e^x)

exp(2.0) returns the value of e^2

log(x)

Natural logarithm (base e)

log(10.0) returns the natural logarithm of 10

log10(x)

Base-10 logarithm

log10(100.0) returns the base-10 logarithm of 100


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int main() {
    double x = 2.5;
    double y = 3.0;

    // Exponential and logarithmic functions
    printf("exp(%f) = %f\n", x, exp(x));
    printf("log(%f) = %f\n", x, log(x));
    printf("log10(%f) = %f\n", x, log10(x));
    
    return 0;
}

Power and Rounding Functions

Function

Description

Example

pow(x, y)

Power function (x^y)

pow(2.0, 3.0) returns 2^3

sqrt(x)

Square root

sqrt(25.0) returns the square root of 25

ceil(x)

Ceil (round up to the nearest integer)

ceil(2.3) returns 3

floor(x)

Floor (round down to the nearest integer)

floor(2.9) returns 2

round(x)

Round to the nearest integer

round(2.3) returns 2, round(2.7) returns 3


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int main() {
    double x = 2.5;
    double y = 3.0;
    // Power function
    printf("pow(%f, %f) = %f\n", x, y, pow(x, y));

    // Square root
    printf("sqrt(%f) = %f\n", x, sqrt(x));

    // Rounding functions
    printf("ceil(%f) = %f\n", x, ceil(x));
    printf("floor(%f) = %f\n", x, floor(x));
    printf("round(%f) = %f\n", x, round(x));

}

Absolute Value and Random Number Generation

Function

Description

Example

fabs(x)

Absolute value

fabs(-5.0) returns 5

rand()

Pseudo-random integer between 0 and RAND_MAX

rand() generates a random intege

srand(seed)

Seed for rand() function

srand(123) sets the seed for reproducibility


Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int main() {
    double x = 2.5;
    double y = 3.0;
    
    // Absolute value
    printf("fabs(%f) = %f\n", -x, fabs(-x));

    // Random number generation
    srand(123); // seed for reproducibility
    printf("rand() = %d\n", rand());

}

Quick Recap - Topics Covered

Quick Recap - Topics Covered

C Math

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